In the Western world, primary hyperparathyroidism is now a relatively common disorder that is diagnosed in 0.7% of the general population and in 2% of postmenopausal women. Although patients today typically present with less severe manifestations of disease, the evaluation and management of patients with parathyroid disease remains challenging. Primary hyperparathyroidism is a complex disease process that requires careful diagnosis and thoughtful medical and surgical management. The surgical management of patients with persistent or recurrent disease, inherited primary hyperparathyroidism syndromes, and parathyroid carcinoma is particularly challenging. High-quality imaging and reliable intraoperative adjuncts are critical to success.
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